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RTlnQ is derived from the deltaG^0 = -RTlnK. K represents the system in the standard state at equilibrium, so if you want to find deltaG not at equilibrium, you must use Q in the equation and subtract it from -RTlnK.
deltaG^0 refers to the Gibbs free energy of a reaction in equilibrium, but RTlnQ is used to find the Gibbs free energy of a reaction that is not in equilibrium, which can be shown through the fact that the Q of a reaction is the ratio of products to reactants for reactions that may or may not be in equilibrium.
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