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I know that if a reaction is exothermic and the temperature is raised, the formation of reactants will be favored because K1 is smaller than K2. However, if a reaction is exothermic and the temperature is lowered, would the formation of products be favored? So does the favorability of either products or reactants ultimately depend solely on the comparison of K2 and K1?
Whenever a temperature is lowered, the exothermic process is favored so yes, the formation of the product will be favored. I would say that the favorability of the product or reactant when the temperature changes depend on what type of a reaction it is (endothermic or exothermic).
Adding on to the above, an endothermic reaction would indicate heat as a reactant and an exothermic reaction would indicate heat as a product. With that said, you could relate this general relationship to Le Chatelier's principle. Say you had a reaction A + B --> C + Heat, then increasing the temperature (thus heat) would cause the reaction to shift to the reactants. On the other hand, decreasing the temperature would cause the reaction to shift to the products.
If a reaction is endothermic, the reaction takes in heat to form products, leaving the surroundings with less heat. Therefore, if additional heat it added to the surroundings, to maintain equilibrium the system will produce more products to reduce the temperature in the surroundings.
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