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You can tell a compound's charge by looking at its net charge, which is usually 0 if there is no superscript shown. The superscript of the compound (ex: -2 or +3) shows its overall charge. From this information you can calculate the individual charge of each atom within the compound since they all have to add up to the overall charge.
You can also find the charge by looking at the charge of the compound as a whole. For example if you have MnO4-. The total net charge for the compound is -1 and we know that oxygen has a oxidation number of -2. Since there are 4 oxygens we know that the total charge that comes form the oxygens are -8. This means that the Mn has to have an oxidation number of 7+ to yield a total net charge of -1.
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