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The cathode is the site of the reduction half reaction. Because metallic cations are being reduced to an uncharged species, the cathode gains mass. The anode is losing mass because the metallic species is losing electrons (being oxidized), and these cations then become aqueous in solution.
The cathode is where the reduction reaction takes place in a salt bridge circuit. It is usually designated on the right side of the diagram. Conversely, the anode is where the oxidation occurs and is usually found on the left side of the diagram.
A cathode is a positively charged electrode which the electrons flows toward because of its positive charge. An anode is a negatively charged electrode which the electron flows from because of its negative charge. These hold true for cathodes and anodes for a Galvanic cell. Oxidation is the loss of an electron and the result is the lost electron being transferred to the cathode which is the species that will accept the electron and be reduced. Since the electron is lost by the species that is oxidized and the electron always flows from the anode to the cathode, the oxidation reaction always occurs at the anode, whereas the reduction reaction occurs at the cathode. The reason we place the anode on the left and cathode on the right is that we want the potential between the two sides to be positive and since the potential is found by final - initial, we have to have cathode - anode which will give us a positive value.
The cathode is where reduction occurs and the anode is where oxidation occurs. I don't think it necessarily matters what side of the diagram it is on, but the anode is usually on the left side of the diagram and the cathode is on the right side.
Cathode is the half reaction that is being reduced while the anode is the half reaction that is being oxidized. I like to use the acronym a RED CAT and AN OX to tell which is which. The cathode also goes on the right side of the diagrams by convention.
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