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Ion selective electrodes are membrane electrodes that produce potential by converting the activity of ions dissolved in a solution. The ion-selective electrode works based on the principle of a galvanic cell. It consists of a reference electrode, ion-selective membrane and voltmeter. The transport of ions from an area of high concentration to low concentration through the selective binding of ions with the specific sites of the membrane creates a potential difference. This potential is measured with respect to a stable reference electrode having a constant potential, and a net charge is determined. The difference in potential between the electrode and the membrane depends on the activity of the specific ion in solution. The strength of the net charge thus measured is directly proportional to the concentration of the selected ion. An electrode can be considered as a bridge that forges a passageway for electrons to travel on, helping the current flow in the circuits.
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