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The integrated rate law of a first order reaction is ln[A] = -kt + ln[A]o. In order to determine the half life of a first order reaction, we set ln[A] = ln[0.5A]o and solve for t. Overall we get the unsimplified version: (ln[0.5A]o - ln[A]o)/-k = t. According to log rules when you subtract 2 logs, you divide the two inputs to each other and when there's a coefficient in front of the log, you raise the input to that power, and by knowing this, first simplify the equation to ln[0.5]/-k = t, then bring the negative in the front to exponent of the log's input therefore getting ln/k = t.
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