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I believe the bottleneck effects describes when in a reaction with multiple steps, there is a slow step that follows a fast step, which means that the second step limits how fast the first one can go (the bottleneck). This is applied to the pre-equilibrium approach we have in which if the first fast step is limited, then we can assume that it is in equilibrium, in which then K = k/k' and we can substitute things around to solve for the rate law more easily.
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