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Catalysts are present as reactants in the very beginning and products at the end. Intermediates, on the other hand, are not present in the initial reaction but are produced within one of the steps and then consumed within another step. Also, catalysts are used throughout the reaction. So according to my understanding, catalysts appear in the reaction as a reactant, but also appear during the elementary steps of the reaction.
I think it has to do with the catalyst reacting (being a reactant) in the first step and being a product for the next step. An intermediate would begin as a product in the Step 1 or your first reaction. They both don't show up in the final equation.
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