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I am not exactly sure about a non-enzymatic catalyst's mechanism of lowering activation energy, but the principles of the two types of catalysts performing the process is likely similar. In an enzyme, the various chemical groups on the amino acids that are exposed to the substrate form non-covalent interactions with them. The formation of these temporary bonds releases energy, effectively lowering the energy of the transition state and allowing for the reaction to occur.
catalysts provide a different way from going to reactants to products. this way allows for the breaking and forming of bonds to require less energy, because the orientation of the reactants, intermediates and products are different than if the reaction proceeded normally.
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