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No, the surface must be metal to exhibit the photoelectric effect because you have to be able to completely remove the electron in order to achieve the effect. Since metals are able to donate/spare electrons while non-metals can’t, only metals will work.
Non-metals will not exhibit the photoelectric effect due to the fact that they do not have any 'spare' electrons in their outer shells. However, metals do contain these 'spare' electrons. These electrons are the ones that can be dislodged/removed by a photon of light that has sufficient energy to do so. Hope this helps!
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