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Applying Science to Society: AAAS Science & Technology Policy Fellowships
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
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Smithsonian Physical Tables, Ninth Revised Edition
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The Merck Index
An encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals that contains more than 10,000 compounds.
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The reason for this has to due with the electron repulsion between the s sigma * orbital and the next highest orbital. In molecules with an atom that is Z<8, the molecular orbital structure that accounts for the lowest possible energy state has the p pi orbitals in a lower position than the p sigma orbital. The opposite can be said about molecules that are strictly z>/=8 as the molecular orbital structure that accounts for the lowest possible energy state places the p sigma orbital lower than the p pi orbitals. The electron repulsion in molecules with an atom Z<8 between the s sigma * orbital and the p sigma orbital is great enough to where the p sigma and p pi orbitals swap positions along the molecular orbital structure. The resulting molecular orbital structure with p pi orbitals in a lower energy state than the p sigma energy state creates a molecule in an overall lower energy state.
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