### Orbitals

Posted:

**Wed Oct 05, 2016 10:00 pm**Can someone please clarify the statement mentioned in lecture that electrons are the orbitals? I’m a bit confused because it was also mentioned electrons are in the orbitals.

Created by Dr. Laurence Lavelle

https://lavelle.chem.ucla.edu/forum/

https://lavelle.chem.ucla.edu/forum/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=15642

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Posted: **Wed Oct 05, 2016 10:00 pm**

Can someone please clarify the statement mentioned in lecture that electrons are the orbitals? I’m a bit confused because it was also mentioned electrons are in the orbitals.

Posted: **Wed Oct 05, 2016 10:19 pm**

I don't think he said that the electrons are the orbitals. Maybe you misheard?

From my HS chem class, I know the electrons are spinning inside the orbitals within a certain distance from the nucleus. Hence, the different levels we learned about today.

Hope this cleared up a bit of confusion somehow :)

From my HS chem class, I know the electrons are spinning inside the orbitals within a certain distance from the nucleus. Hence, the different levels we learned about today.

Hope this cleared up a bit of confusion somehow :)

Posted: **Wed Oct 05, 2016 10:33 pm**

As I discussed in class today a wave function is a math model representing an electron.

Electrons have different states (different wave functions): 1s, 2p_{x}, etc.

Electrons have different states (different wave functions): 1s, 2p

Posted: **Thu Oct 06, 2016 10:34 am**

This was a concept that I was pretty confused about as well, but from my understanding:

Electrons are located in different energy levels (n=1,2,3, etc)

Each energy level has a certain space where there is a high percentage that electrons might be located in. These are called orbitals, and are different shapes that are given different letters (s,p,d,f...).

Take the 1 s orbital for hydrogen. The 1 represents n=1, and it is the orbital closest to the nucleus. As Dr. Lavelle explained in class, the s represents the shape of the orbital (I think he described it as a ping pong ball?). So the 1s orbital for hydrogen is the space where you are most likely to find its electron.

Still trying to wrap my head around this concept, but hope this helps clarify a bit about what orbitals are!

Electrons are located in different energy levels (n=1,2,3, etc)

Each energy level has a certain space where there is a high percentage that electrons might be located in. These are called orbitals, and are different shapes that are given different letters (s,p,d,f...).

Take the 1 s orbital for hydrogen. The 1 represents n=1, and it is the orbital closest to the nucleus. As Dr. Lavelle explained in class, the s represents the shape of the orbital (I think he described it as a ping pong ball?). So the 1s orbital for hydrogen is the space where you are most likely to find its electron.

Still trying to wrap my head around this concept, but hope this helps clarify a bit about what orbitals are!

Posted: **Fri Oct 07, 2016 10:04 am**

I understand that the number corresponds to the energy level and the letter is the shape, but what does the shape actually mean? How do the orbitals have different shapes? Is it the path the electron takes? I think it is just conceptually hard to visualize but I am still very confused on this concept.

Posted: **Fri Oct 07, 2016 12:28 pm**

Anna Makridis_L1 wrote:I understand that the number corresponds to the energy level and the letter is the shape, but what does the shape actually mean? How do the orbitals have different shapes? Is it the path the electron takes? I think it is just conceptually hard to visualize but I am still very confused on this concept.

The shape is just a mathematical model calculated from wave function to represent the possibility of finding an electron at a certain time. I think what confuses you is that the difference between "orbit" and "orbital". "Orbit" means a specific trajectory. According to the uncertainty principle, we can't find out the exact orbit of electrons. What we can do is to use a mathematical model to represent the "orbital" of the electron. Just imagine the orbital is a possibility cloud.

Posted: **Fri Oct 07, 2016 4:48 pm**

Melody Salimian wrote:Can someone please clarify the statement mentioned in lecture that electrons are the orbitals? I’m a bit confused because it was also mentioned electrons are in the orbitals.

In a slightly different perspective, I think what he meant by "electrons are the orbitals" is the fact that the behavior of the electron creates the "orbital space." Rather than there being preset orbital spaces where you find electrons, the orbitals themselves ARE made by the electrons.

Posted: **Sat Oct 08, 2016 10:24 am**

Hey guys I was reviewing Lavelle's lecture from Friday yesterday and realized I was wondering why there are multiple possibilities for the magnetic quantum number and spin magnetic quantum number.

Posted: **Mon Oct 17, 2016 10:52 am**

What exactly does the magnetic quantum number (m) define? How does it relate to the quantum numbers n and l?

Posted: **Mon Oct 17, 2016 2:52 pm**

There's no just "m" quantum number, there is m_{l} and m_{s}. The m_{l} describes the different orbitals in the subshell (There's the subshell p, and m_{l} would show differentiate between p_{x}, p_{y}, and p_{z} orientations).

m_{s} on the other hand tells you if one of the electrons (in one orientation of a subshell) is spinning up or down (+1/2 or -1/2). So basically, it'd tell you if the electron in the p_{x} orbital is spinning up or down.

m_{l} is dependent on the quantum numbers l and n, and the quantum number l is dependent on n.

l dependent on n: If n=1, there could only be l=0, which means in the 1st shell, there can only be the s subshell (there is only 1s, there's no 1p subshell). If n=2, then l can be 0 and 1, which means the 2nd shell can have an s and p subshell.

m_{l} dependent on l: If n=1 and l=0, then m_{l}=0, which means it's only 1s _, there are no other orientations (it can support 2 electrons). If n=2 and l=1, then m_{l}=-1, 0, or 1, which means it's 2p _ _ _ (p_{x}, p_{y}, p_{z}).

Hopefully that somewhat answers both questions above.

m

m

l dependent on n: If n=1, there could only be l=0, which means in the 1st shell, there can only be the s subshell (there is only 1s, there's no 1p subshell). If n=2, then l can be 0 and 1, which means the 2nd shell can have an s and p subshell.

m

Hopefully that somewhat answers both questions above.