## s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals [ENDORSED]

304922790
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### s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals

During the lecture how did Professor Lavelle get 1s^2 , 2s^2 , 2p sub x ^1 , 2p sub y ^1 ? I understand on the periodic table it gives the max like 2p for Carbon, but how did he get 1s, 2s ? And how do you know how many electrons are in each s p d f orbitals? How do you determine if they are parallel or paired in order to determine their spin state? Sorry I am super confused and I didn't learn this in high school. He went over it pretty quickly in the lecture so I am pretty lost. It would be great if you can help me out!

Hector Acosta Discussion 1H
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Joined: Fri Sep 29, 2017 7:04 am

### Re: s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals

Lavelle said electrons will always be paired in the elements we go over. You know how many electrons are in each orbital depending on the element, but the s orbital can hold up to 2 the p orbital up to 6 the d orbital up to 10 and the f orbital up to 14.

Jessica Yang 1J
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### Re: s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals

Regarding the carbon question, an uncharged carbon atom will have 6 electrons. 2 go in the 1s orbital (paired), 2 go in the 2s orbital (paired), and the other 2 will go in the 2 p orbital. One will be in the p sub x and one will be in the p sub y. They are unpaired because they first need to fill the p sub x, p sub y, and p sub z and then go into pairing.

Chem_Mod
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### Re: s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals  [ENDORSED]

These answers are all correct. Electrons will continue to fill orbitals sequentially. So by the time you get to Carbon with its six electrons, the 1s and 2s orbitals will have been previously filled.

Quantum chemistry is one of the most difficult sections in 14A, so it's understandable that you are struggling with it. I highly encourage you to come to office hours and/or Peer Learning Sessions to strengthen your understanding of the topics!