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Valence electrons are found in the outermost subshell of an atom. To put it simply, you can tell how many valence electrons an atom has by seeing which group on the periodic table the atom comes from. For example, the elements in groups 1 and 2 both have 1 and two valence electrons respectively. Once you get to groups 13-18, you simply subtract 10 from the values 13-18 to find how many valence electrons the atom contains. I hope this helps answer the second half of your question!
Valence electrons are the actual number of electrons present in the outermost energy shell. An ion can either be a cation or an anion. This means the atom (anion) would gain an electron in the outermost shell and thus add to the valence electron number. For a cation the atom would lose an electron from its outermost energy shell and thus subtract from the valence electron number.
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