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On Friday we went over the different labels to specify an electron (shell, subshell, max electrons, orientation, etc.) but I still cannot understand how you derive all of them, especially the orientation/spin. How can you tell what shell an electron is in or what spin it has? Thank you!
I would watch a youtube video to help explain this but basically, electrons fill up orbitals in the order of 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc at is shown on the periodic table. In each orbital, an electron fills up in each pair before they start to pair up (general rule). The reason why they have opposite spins is for stability in these orbitals and so they maintain their "ground state."
You can tell what shell an electron is in by the quantum numbers. So, remember n determines the shell or size, l determines the orbital(s, p, d, or f), ml determines orbitals of subshell or plane (x,y,z), and ms determines spin. The shells are given by the quantum numbers and I think we just have to know that each electron can be spin up or spin down.
N is the shell. Based on n, l can be any number up to n-1. If 1=0 it is an s-orbital, if l=1 it is a p orbital, if l=2 it is a d-orbital, and if l=3 it is an f-orbital. Then, the MI can be l...l-1...to negative l. The last number, or the spin, is just either -1/2 of +1/2.
The spin does not matter unless there are two electrons in the same "address" (n,l,ml). Since direction (counterclockwise/clockwise,up/down) is relative to how the atom is being viewed, it does not matter which electron is labeled +1/2 or -1/2.
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