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The s, p,d,and f orbitals correspond to the main types of shapes of the atomic orbitals. For example, the s orbitals are in the shape of a sphere and the p orbitals are two lobes with a nodal plane through the center. The periodic table is also split up in to s, p, d, and f blocks in which the valence electrons (with the highest energy) have the corresponding orbital type. The principle quantum number n correlates to the row in which the atom is located on the periodic table. For example, if n=3, the atom would be in the 3rd row of the periodic table.
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