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### Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Tue Oct 22, 2019 8:11 pm
Why is it that for multi-electron atoms, that the electrons placed in 2s are lower energy-wise than electrons in the 2p of the same atom? Is it because of electron shielding?

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Tue Oct 22, 2019 10:01 pm
Yeah, it has to do with shielding. In hydrogen (one electron), 2s and 2p have the same energy when the electron is excited. However, when there are multiple electrons, the 2s sub-shell has a slightly lower energy than 2p.

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Wed Oct 23, 2019 12:17 am
Even thought they are in the same shell, n = 2, they are in different subshells. The 2s subshell provides slight electron shielding to the 2p subshell which means that the effective nuclear charge is not felt by the 2p electrons as strongly.

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 1:42 pm
Can someone explain what a shell is vs a subshell?

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 1:45 pm
how do I know how many bonds or "dots" go on the ion in the lewis structures

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 1:53 pm
705198479 wrote:how do I know how many bonds or "dots" go on the ion in the lewis structures

The number of dots on an atom is the same as the number of valence electrons that the atom has. So for carbon, for example, you would draw four dots as it has four valence electrons.

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 1:53 pm
705198479 wrote:how do I know how many bonds or "dots" go on the ion in the lewis structures

Count the number of valence electrons!

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 2:01 pm
is there a rule that restricts a sub shell ? is it important to remember for this class?

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 2:14 pm
Can someone explain what a shell is vs a subshell?

The shell is the n quantum number (broadest division of electrons in an atom). Shells correspond to the rows in the periodic table.
The subshell is the s-p-d-f classification of orbital groups (quantum number l.) Shells are divided into subshells (3s, 3p, 3d).

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Thu Oct 24, 2019 2:43 pm
As "l" (the number corresponding to the orbital) increases, the orbitals become increasingly less likely to penetrate the nucleus. Since the electrons spend more time further from the nucleus as l increases, they also experience more repulsion from other electrons. This means that the energy level will increase slightly as the value of l goes up.

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Fri Oct 25, 2019 1:25 pm
705198479 wrote:is there a rule that restricts a sub shell ? is it important to remember for this class?

you should know how many electrons each shell can hold; the s shell can only hold 2, p holds 6, d holds 10 and f holds 14

### Re: Energy of spdf orbitals

Posted: Fri Oct 25, 2019 6:39 pm
505106414 wrote:Can someone explain what a shell is vs a subshell?

An energy shell is represented by n, while sub shells are spdf.