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I remember during lecture he explained electron shielding in a camping scenario. If you are sitting by a fire and someone walks in between you and the fire then you will feel less heat. Same scenario applies to electron shielding in that further electrons feel “less heat” or “less attraction” to the nucleus. It is being blocked or shielded by the electrons in the inner shell.
Electrons further away from the nucleus are bound less tightly to the nucleus because the effective nuclear charge is reduced because of the distance between the nucleus and the electron, and because electrons that are closer to the nucleus "shield" or block some of the positive charge of the nucleus from reaching the outer electrons.
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