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It tells you which specific orbital the electron is in. For example, the angular momentum quantum number might say the electron is in an p-orbital, but the magnetic quantum quantum number tells you whether it's in the orbital along the x-axis, y-axis, or z-axis.
This tells you where the electron is (the orientation of the orbital in regard to the three axes, x, y and z)after knowing the location of the shell and shape of the sub shell. For example, 2p gives you the first two quantum number but to know which orbital of the three orbitals in p subshell the electron is in, you need the magnetic quantum number, which can be given as 2p(x).
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