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I don't believe that because n=5 that l has to automatically equal 4. l is based on the orbitals while n is the energy level. For example, if the configuration is [Kr] 5s^2 n=5 while l=0 as Strontium is in the s-orbital. Hope this helps!
n is the principle quantum number and represents the energy level an electron is located. l is the angular momentum of e and describes the shape of the orbital. n and l are not dependent on each other; you can have 4s, 4p, and 4d orbitals, where n=4 but l can be 1, 2, and 3 respectively.
When the quantum number n=5, l can theoretically equal 4 but is not necessarily (or realistically 4). When n=5, l can be 0,1,2,3,4 since the values of l range from 0 to n-1. l=4 would also result in subshell g but as far as I know, no ground state elements have electrons in the g subshell.
for the last part of your question..."shell" refers to the principle quantum number, n, and "subshell" refers to the angular momentum, or the subshell/orbitals or s/p/d/f. So, the fourth shell would be when n=4, and the orbital/subshell can be l=0,1,2,3 for the "4th shell"
For the purposes of this class, I don't think we have to worry about the subshell when l=4. Just remember l relates to either s, p, d, or f which correspond to 0, 1,2, and 3 accordingly. Conceptually yes, when n=5, l is equal to everything up to n-1 but I don't think we can identify the subshell when l is greater than 3
When n=5 the general rule is that l=n-1 but that isn't always the case as l could potentially be 0,1,2,etc. For Sapling questions though, unless they give you a specific element, I would use the general rule for determination and l=4 corresponds to the letter g.
I don't think we need to know the answer to this question since we usually are given values of l up to 3. l=0 corresponds to the s subshell, and l=1 corresponds to the p subshell. l=2 corresponds to the d subshell, and l=3 corresponds to the f subshell. Since there aren't any other subshells that we need to know besides s,p,d, and f, we won't need to know what orbitals correspond to l=4.
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