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Here's an example that might help! In the n = 1 shell, the subshell would be 1s. In the n = 2 shell, the subshells would be 2s and 2p. In n = 3 shell, the subshells are 3s, 3p, and 3d. And on and on. The subshells are s, p, d, and f and each one can hold a specific amount of electrons.
Hi so I would like to build on what the previous person has stated. So knowing that you have the different subshells s,p,d, and f there are different states within the subshells. We didn't go over D in that much detail so I am going to stick with the simpler one. Within p there is Px, Py, and Pz. And these are the different states within the P subshell. So, these subshells tie into Hund's rule because if you have a Nitrogen, the electrons within the p subshell of Nitrogen would each have to occupy different states for the element to be stable. So there would be electrons in 2s^2 2Px^1 2Py^1 2Pz^1. They electrons would then be occupying different orbitals within the same subshell which follows Hund's rule.
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