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Iodine simply does not form an I2- oxidation state. However, to continue filling orbitals, you would continue to fill according to relative energies which would lead you to begin filling 6s.
Cations are smaller because when you remove an electron to form cations the effective nuclear charge increases (protons can pull electrons closer because there are less of them). Conversely, adding an electron to form anions reduces the effective nuclear charge because there are now more electrons than protons making it more difficult to pull them in and there is increased electron-electron repulsion, making them larger.
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