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Electron penetration describes the ability of an electron to approach the nucleus. This ability depends of the attraction of an electron to the nucleus, so 2s electrons have a higher electron penetration than 2p electrons as they have a higher relative electron density near the nucleus. Since, this is a property of electrons in multi-electron systems, I would assume that this is valid for all elements other than Hydrogen.
To add to the previous reply, while you move across the period from left to right, Z effective increases. This is due to high electron density within the same shells, which causes electron repulsion to increase. This then allows the nucleus-electron attraction to be strong, and the nucleus can reach the electrons and pull them towards it (penetration).
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