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Isoelectronic ions consist of two molecules that have both the same amount of atoms and valence electrons. In Na+ and F-, since Na loses an electron, it goes into group 18, where it has 8 valence electrons and 10 atoms rather than 11. For F-, adding an electron makes F go into group 18 as well. So then F ends up having 8 valence electrons rather than 7, and 10 total atoms rather than 9.
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