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I did some research because your question made me curious as well. The d-block is believed to start with 3d even though it is in the 4th period, because it deals with different amounts of energy. For example, scandium's (Sc) electron configuration is written as [Ar] 3d^1 4s^2 because the 3d state is lower in energy than 4s. The numbers preceding the orbital make it easier to understand the energy levels and how electron configurations should be written regardless of an element's placement on the periodic table. I hope this helps!!
Cameron Smith 1I wrote:Also why do cations in the d block lose their s orbital electrons before their d orbital electrons?
I think it has to do with the energy of the 3d orbitals being slightly less than that of the 4s. This link explains a lot: https://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/prope ... oblem.html
Hope that helps :)
Cations in the d-block lose their electrons in the s-orbital because generally transition metals in the d block will try to either maintain a half or full state as it is more stable. As a result, it is easier to lose the electrons in the 4s orbital first than the d-block because it allows the elements to remain stable. That is why cations in the dblock will generally lose from the s-orbital in order to remain stable.
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