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s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Fri Oct 19, 2018 1:09 pm
by Artin Allahverdian 2H
What exactly is it that causes an s-electron to have lower energy than a p-electron in the same shell?

Re: s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Fri Oct 19, 2018 1:22 pm
by Yousif Jafar 1G
Due to the electrostatic interactions between the nucleus and the electrons in the various orbitals, the further the electron is from the nucleus, the higher its energy. Because the s-orbital is shielding the p-orbital in the same shell, the electrons of the p-orbital will have a higher energy because of the decreased effect of the nucleus.

Re: s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Fri Oct 19, 2018 2:31 pm
by hazelyang2E
This can also be explained through the concept of the effective nuclear charge which essentially says that because the inner electrons shield the outer electrons from electrostatic attraction of the positive nucleus, the outer electrons feel reduced electrostatic attraction. Because the s-electron is closer to the nucleus it shields the p-electron from the positive charge of the nucleus which then leads the s-electron having a lower energy level than the p-electron.

Re: s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Sun Oct 21, 2018 3:58 pm
by bonnie_schmitz_1F
In high school, I remember learning that the 4s- shell was before the 3d- shell because of how much larger the 3d- one was. Is this right?

Re: s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Mon Oct 22, 2018 1:13 pm
by Artin Allahverdian 2H
@ bonnie_schmitz_3K

Actually, 3d comes before 4s, given that 4s is fully occupied, because 3d has a lower energy state than 4s.

Re: s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Mon Oct 22, 2018 3:13 pm
by Erin Nash - 4G
3d always comes before 4s because it is at a lower energy level than 4s.

Re: s, p, d, f subshells in multi-electron atoms

Posted: Tue Oct 23, 2018 10:55 am
by Jordan Lo 2A
I'm confused about this statement from the 6th Edition Ch 2 #37b homework problem:
Electrons in an s-orbital are more effective than those in other orbitals at shielding other electrons from the nuclear charge because an electron in an s-orbital can penetrate to the nucleus of the atom.
Is this because all the other orbitals other than s have nodal planes?