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I understand how the inner electrons shield the outer electrons from the electrostatic attraction of the nucleus because they are in front of the outer electrons. But what exactly is the electrostatic attraction?
Electrostatic attraction is essentially the attraction between the positively charged nucleus of an atom and the negatively charged electrons surrounding it. The greater the positive charge of the nucleus (the more protons), the greater the effective nuclear charge.
Electrostatic attraction is the repulsion or attraction between two particles due to their charges and distance between these two charges. This can be found by using Coulomb's Law: (q1 x q2)/(r^2) where q1 and q2 represent the two charges and r represents the distance between charges.
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