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So I understand that the 4s^2 has a higher energy level than 3d^10 which is why it comes after 3d^10 say in element Bromine, however for Copper's electron configuration its exception makes it 3d^10 and 4s^1, but the 4s^1 is still after 3d^10, even though 4s^1 has a lower energy level than 3d^10, why is this?
This is because it is more stable for the entire 3d subshell to be filled than to have the 4s subshell with 2 and the 3d with 9. This is pretty much just how the math happens to work out and what is experimentally observed. A parallel to this is the electronic structure of Chromium, from the same subshell (3d) which has 3d5,4s1 instead of 3d4,4s2. Having this electron configuration is just more stable.
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