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So F normally is [He] 2s2 2p5 but because you have F-, you add another electron. This electron would go to the p orbital (becuase 2p5 still has space for one more electron), and then you have [He] 2s2 2p6 which is the same as [Ar].
In general for ions, when there is a negative charge you add that number of electrons and when there is a positive charge you add that number of electrons. Then, once you know how many electrons the ion has, you go through the periodic table and start writing the electron configurations beginning with 1s^2,2s^2,etc.. until you have accounted for all the electrons present in the ion. Hope this helps!
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