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Are the only special cases when completing ground state electron configuration Cu and Cr or is it all of the first row of transition metals?
The special cases when completing ground state electron configurations are Cu and Cr. Its not all of the first row of transition metals.
In addition, those metals below Cu and Cr follow the same pattern, where the row beginning with Cu is nd^5ns^1 and the row beginning with Cr is nd^10ns^1.
For the purposes of this course you only need to know Cu and Cr, but all the elements in those rows show the same pattern because it is more stable for the elements to be either have all the d orbital filled with electrons or half filled.
Ok thank you! Also, should we know/memorize the exceptions of ionic charges for transitional metals?
The only cases are just Cu and Cr because in these cases, a completely full or half full d sub-level is more stable than a partially filled d sub- level, so an electron from the 4s orbital is excited and rises to a 3d orbital.
Cu and Cr are both special cases and the only special cases in that row. Basically, because Cu's configuration is 3d^9 and 4s^2, the 3d^9 steals an electron from 4s^2 turning it into 4d^10 and the same thing with Cr.
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