Why is copper like this?

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MKearney_4G
Posts: 50
Joined: Fri Aug 30, 2019 12:18 am

Why is copper like this?

Postby MKearney_4G » Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:33 pm

[Ar] 3d10 4s1 is the Electron Config for Cu,
but if you do it systematically you get 4s2 3d9.
I get that the 4s electron is more "stable" in the 3d suborbital, but why? And why does this not happen for any other element in the row?

Same with chromium . . .

Sadhana_Dicussion_4A
Posts: 51
Joined: Sat Sep 07, 2019 12:19 am

Re: Why is copper like this?

Postby Sadhana_Dicussion_4A » Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:50 pm

Copper and Chromium are exceptions because it is easier to remove a 4s electron and bring it down to the 3d subshell. This creates more stability due to symmetry since it gives them a half filled or completely filled 3d subshell.

Kate Osborne 1H
Posts: 102
Joined: Fri Aug 30, 2019 12:16 am

Re: Why is copper like this?

Postby Kate Osborne 1H » Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:55 pm

If the 3d sub-shell is either half full or full that is more stable so the 4s sub-shell will not be full then!

Osvaldo SanchezF -1H
Posts: 122
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:21 am

Re: Why is copper like this?

Postby Osvaldo SanchezF -1H » Sun Oct 20, 2019 7:04 pm

Copper and chromium are the exception but I believe that he mentioned that silver is also an exception?

AmyL_3L
Posts: 50
Joined: Fri Aug 09, 2019 12:17 am

Re: Why is copper like this?

Postby AmyL_3L » Sun Oct 20, 2019 7:29 pm

Copper violates the Aufbau Principle, as well as Chromium, because stability is greater for a half completed or completed d sub-level. Therefore, the 3d orbital gains an electron from the 4s orbital.

William Francis 2E
Posts: 101
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:20 am

Re: Why is copper like this?

Postby William Francis 2E » Sun Oct 20, 2019 7:36 pm

I just read something that said that violations to the aufbau principle are more common for elements with higher atomic numbers than for those with lower atomic numbers. Why is this?

Juliet Stephenson 4E
Posts: 100
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:21 am

Re: Why is copper like this?

Postby Juliet Stephenson 4E » Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:10 pm

William Francis 3C wrote:I just read something that said that violations to the aufbau principle are more common for elements with higher atomic numbers than for those with lower atomic numbers. Why is this?


Hi Will,

As was mentioned earlier in this thread, full and half-full subshells are rather stable and can have lower energy levels relative to expectations. In smaller atoms, the jumps in energy are large enough that this doesn't frequently cause a change from the norm in the sequence of energy levels. In large atoms, the differences in energy levels are smaller, so these shifts in sequence are much more frequent.

Hope I was able to give you a hand there,
Juliet


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