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If a question asks you to "give the number of valence electrons (including d electrons)" for manganese, how many valence electrons are there? I thought that the electron configuration of manganese is [Ar]3d5 4s2, therefore should the number of valence electrons be 2 or 7?
The number of valence electrons is 7 for manganese. It includes the 3d orbital electrons because the difference in energy between the 3d orbital and 4s is very small, so they essentially are in the same energy level. However, transition metals can have multiple valence states, so technically 2 or 7 can be right. But, since it asks you to include d orbitals, the answer should be 7.
Transition metals can use their d electrons for bonding due to an incomplete d subshell. Therefore, a transition metal's valence electrons include the ns and (n-1)d electrons. In this case, Manganese would have 7 valence electrons.
There are 7 valence electrons in manganese, with 5 valence electrons coming from the 3d orbital (since the question asks you to include d electrons) and 2 valence electrons coming from the 4s orbital.
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