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For chromium and copper, a completely full (d10) or half full (d5) d sub-level is more stable than a partially filled d sub-level. As a result, an electron from the 4s orbital is excited and rises to a 3d orbital, because this reduces the total energy
They are exceptions because a completely full or a half full d sub-level is more stable than a partially full d sub-level. To make the d sub-level more stable, an electron from the 4s orbital is excited/rises to the 3s orbital. Instead of 3d^4 or 3d^9, we excite an orbital to make 3d^5 of 3d^10.
Some atoms, like Chromium and Copper, are more stable when their shells or sub-shells are half-filled/filled with electrons, rather than almost half-filled/filled. These atoms are more stable this way, reaching an overall lower state of energy.
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