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When the atom is neutral, the atomic and ionic radius are the same. This isn't true for anions and cations, though. If the atom loses an electron and becomes a cation,the atom becomes positively charged and the ionic radius is smaller than the atomic radius because the atom loses an electron energy shell.
When it comes to the neutral atom both ionic and atomic radius is the same. But we know that many elements can lose or gain electrons converting them to anions or cations. We know that if an atom loses an electron the radius decreases, if the ion gains an electron the radius increases. This is where the ionic radius comes from.
Anions are bigger because they have more electrons. Cations are smaller because they have less electrons. As a result, their radius is different than when they're just a normal, non-charged atom. Ionic radius = for cation, anions; atomic radius = for non-charged.
Yes, essentially anion radius > neutral atom radius > cation radius. Atomic radius increases down a group (as amount of electrons/shells increases) and decreases from left to right (as more protons draw in electron shells more).
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