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The first ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom in a gaseous state. The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove another electron in addition to the electron that is already removed. The second ionization energy is always greater that the first ionization energy because to remove a second electron is to remove an electron in the presence of a larger amount of protons than electrons, thus a stronger nuclear charge.
Elements in the s-block have low ionization energy because if one or two electrons (depending on if they are in group one or two) are removed, then the atom becomes stable as it has the full octet. Elements in p-block on the other hand have higher ionization energies especially those in group 17, as they only require a few electrons (one if in group 17) in order to become stable.
When an atom has more electrons in its outer shell, its radius is bigger. This is because of electron-electron repulsion. Therefore, when you take the first electron out, the atom becomes smaller since there are less electrons. Because the atom is now smaller, the atom requires a greater ionization energy to remove the 2nd electron since the atomic radius decreased.
Ionization energy is just the minimum amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a gaseous atom. The second ionization energy is always larger than the first ionization energy because there is a stronger nuclear charge once an electron is already missing.
Kelsey Ash 1D wrote:What is the difference between 1st ionization energy and second ionization energy?
As discussed in a previous lecture, removing a second electron always requires more energy than removing the first electron.
looking at this example of Copper:
Cu(g) --> Cu+(g) and e-(g) with a first ionization energy of around 750kJ.mol-1
Cu+(g) --> Cu2+(g) and e-(g) with a second ionization energy of over 1900kJ.mol-1
as we can see the second ionization energy is more than 2x as large as the first ionization energy.
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