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The charge of a cation, in particular, can affect how the strong its polarizing power is. For example, a K+ ion has less polarizing power than an Mg2+ ion. Further, a K+ ion will have more polarizing power than a Rb+ ion since the K+ ion has a positive charge than can have a large distance of influnce than the Mg2+ ions.
The polarizability of an anion is dependent on the number of electrons it has which is also dependent on the neutral state of the atom and the nuclear charge. The more electrons an atom has, the greater its electron cloud and the more electrons that are further away from the nucleus which may be attracted to the nucleus of the cation. The nuclear charge of the cation which will polarize the anion is also important since the nuclear charge will pull on the electrons of the anion. Because polarizability depends on the number of electrons in the anion and the nuclear charge of the cation, the charge is important in polarizability.
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