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In lecture, Professor Lavelle stated that Na+, Mg2+, and F- are isoelectronic, which means that they all of the same number of electrons. Does the number of electrons alter the size of the atom or is the size just affected by the additional shells and nuclear charge according to the periodic table of elements?
They have the same amount of electrons but the size varies because of the number of protons each one has. When the number of protons increases with the same number of electrons, the attraction is stronger and the electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus, thus decreasing in size.
This is also why atom size decreases across the periodic table, because of the increase in protons in the nucleus and the increase of electrons in the same shell draws the electrons in; however, when moving down a group the size will increase because the added shells place electrons further from the nucleus.
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