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Could anyone explain why the elements in the same columns have the same electromagnetic properties?
Hi! So the columns of the periodic table are organized so that all of the elements in each vertical column have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons (the outermost electrons) truly define the chemical properties of elements as they help determine electron configuration. Therefore, since the columns are grouped by valence electrons, they have very similar properties determined by electron configuration, and one of these is electronegativity. Electronegativity is defined as "the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is part of a compound," according to our textbook. As you move across the columns, electronegativity increases as you go from left to right (periodic trend), because of valence electrons (when referring to the columns). The more valence electrons, the higher the electronegativity. This is because atoms are always trying to achieve the "octet rule" of having eight valence electrons. Atoms with higher electronegativity are able to pull electrons away from other atoms with lower electronegativity, because they have to "fill" fewer electrons in their valence shell compared to atoms with a lower electronegativity. Hope this helps!
Yeah, I agree with Sophia. Basically, what the elements in the columns in the periodic table have in common are the valence electrons. Valence electrons are responsible for all of the chemical reactions that exist in the entire world FYI. If elements are in the same column, it means they have the same number of valence electrons (electrons that are in the outermost shell). As a result, take electronegativity. You can basically think that all atoms "want" to complete their octet, meaning have 8 valence electrons. All of the halogens have 7 valence electrons, so they only need 1 in order to get to 8. Because they only need 1, they have a high electronegativity, due to how the definition is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. The reason why Flourine is the most electronegative element is not only because it is small in terms of ionic radius, but also because it has 7 valence electrons in its outermost shell.
HI! Sophia and Vince pretty much have it all down but if you want a super simple one/two-sentence explanation: atoms go along the octet rule where they want to complete their outer shell (8 electrons) so as they get closer and closer to getting 8 electrons, the more they want/have stronger affinity for surrounding electrons. It's definitely not the most accurate description but I think knowing the gist of it would be really helpful.
Everything everyone said I agree with just metals in the "d" block (the middle) of the periodic table all have similar properties notwithstanding the group they are in. That is to say they don't act as consistent in groups as group 1, 2, 17, 18 that all act incredibly similar within their own group. And also there are a lot of metals (especially massive ones) that don't obey octet rules- long story short metals are their own thing and need special attention.
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