## Ground State

Kellina Tran 2I
Posts: 50
Joined: Sat Jul 22, 2017 3:00 am

### Ground State

How do we know when the electrons in an atom are in its ground state judging from the spins and orbitals?

Priyanka Bhakta 1L
Posts: 50
Joined: Fri Sep 29, 2017 7:04 am

### Re: Ground State

In the ground state, the electrons follow the Hunds Rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle. So, the electrons must have one electron in each orbital to start off, then begin pairing electrons. When there are only one electron in each/most of the orbitals of the valence shell, they should all have parallel (same) spins. If electrons are in a pair in a single orbital - because each orbital has at least one electron - they must be paired (have opposite spins). Also check and see that each different "subshell" has the right about of electrons; for exampel: for N or P valence shells, if there is only 1 electron in the s-orbital, and 5 in the p-orbital, the atom is in an excited state because the s-orbital should be filled completely and then the p-orbital should fill.

Hope this helps!

colecabling1A
Posts: 6
Joined: Fri Apr 06, 2018 11:02 am

### Re: Ground State

Ground state is defined as the state of lowest energy; therefore, you can identify when electrons in an atom are in their ground state if you are unable to transfer electrons to different orbitals

Chem_Mod
Posts: 18400
Joined: Thu Aug 04, 2011 1:53 pm
Has upvoted: 435 times

### Re: Ground State

Ground state is the lowest possible energy state. So, if the electrons are filled such that the they are in the lowest possible energy state (see all the rules for filling the electrons) then the atom is in the ground state.

Melissa_Aguirre1J
Posts: 38
Joined: Tue Nov 14, 2017 3:02 am

### Re: Ground State

How are we supposed to determine the ground state of an electron?

Melissa_Aguirre1J
Posts: 38
Joined: Tue Nov 14, 2017 3:02 am

### Re: Changing Ground State to Excited State

How do we calculate the change from ground state to excited state and excited state to ground state?