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### Ground State

Posted: Wed Nov 01, 2017 1:43 am
How do we know when the electrons in an atom are in its ground state judging from the spins and orbitals?

### Re: Ground State

Posted: Wed Nov 01, 2017 8:44 am
In the ground state, the electrons follow the Hunds Rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle. So, the electrons must have one electron in each orbital to start off, then begin pairing electrons. When there are only one electron in each/most of the orbitals of the valence shell, they should all have parallel (same) spins. If electrons are in a pair in a single orbital - because each orbital has at least one electron - they must be paired (have opposite spins). Also check and see that each different "subshell" has the right about of electrons; for exampel: for N or P valence shells, if there is only 1 electron in the s-orbital, and 5 in the p-orbital, the atom is in an excited state because the s-orbital should be filled completely and then the p-orbital should fill.

Hope this helps!

### Re: Ground State

Posted: Sun Apr 15, 2018 6:44 pm
Ground state is defined as the state of lowest energy; therefore, you can identify when electrons in an atom are in their ground state if you are unable to transfer electrons to different orbitals

### Re: Ground State

Posted: Sun Apr 15, 2018 7:42 pm
Ground state is the lowest possible energy state. So, if the electrons are filled such that the they are in the lowest possible energy state (see all the rules for filling the electrons) then the atom is in the ground state.

### Re: Ground State

Posted: Fri Apr 27, 2018 11:15 pm
How are we supposed to determine the ground state of an electron?

### Re: Changing Ground State to Excited State

Posted: Fri Apr 27, 2018 11:16 pm
How do we calculate the change from ground state to excited state and excited state to ground state?