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Diffraction is a combination of destructive and constructive interference that leads to specific patterns based on what is causing diffraction. It can be used to determine atomic structures of crystals.
Constructive diffraction is when the peaks and troughs of the waves line up, the other diffraction is when the peaks and troughs of the waves do not line up and then essentially cancel each other out (in really basic terms)
I think of constructive diffraction as adding the magnitudes of 2 overlapping wavelengths of different sizes, and destructive diffraction would then be a subtraction of 2 overlapping, alternating wavelengths of different sizes (I don't know if this is actually true but I hope that it is!)
Dr. Lavelle went over the cases of "constructive" and "destructive" interference where the two waves were completely in phase or out-of-phase with each other, leading to either a bigger wave or a destruction of the amplitude. There can be cases where waves' amplitudes add up while some parts of the waves get destroyed. It all has to do with the phase of the waves.
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