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Hi! Electron spins are similar to orientation except it's just the way an electron spins whether that be clockwise or counter clockwise! It's not really a value that can be changed it is just a property that was found of electrons upon observing them. If you recall, in the lecture, we discussed the Stern and Gerlach Experiment which discussed an experiment where it was observed, using a silver atom with 1 unpaired electron, that electrons can spin up (1/2) or down (-1/2) which is why we technically consider it the fourth quantum number.
you can determine the electron spin by drawing the electron configuration, the details of the electron spin itself aren't essential but do provide a little background. Basically, if you draw the configuration, you'll have an arrow pointing up or down in the end, so this will tell you whether it is +1/2 (spin up) or -1/2 (spin down).
I don't know if this is correct, but I believe that the first electron spins up, while the second spins down. I am basing this off of when we draw our electron configurations, we draw the first electron as an arrow pointing up in each orbital.
Electron spin represents the angular momentum of electrons, and is noticeable when electrons interact with magnetic fields. In each individual orbital, there is one electron with a +1/2 spin and one electron with a -1/2 spin.
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