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I understand that electrons have a duality of having particle-like properties as well as wave-like properties, however, what are the exact examples or properties or that make each side valid? (Atomic Spectra, Photoelectric effect, etc.)
The photoelectric effect (i.e. shining light on a metal and finding the threshold energy of an electron) was used as strong evidence that light is a photon with certain energy/frequency. This proved that electromagnetic radiation including electrons behaved in a particle like matter rather than a wave. However, when electrons were emitted to a single crystal of Nickel, scientists observed a diffraction pattern which illustrated that electrons must have wave like properties as well. Therefore, the wave-particle duality was accepted.
Also, diffraction patterns results from constructive and destructive interference. Since diffraction patterns result from interacting waves, electrons must have wavelike properties in addition to particlelike properties.
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