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Atoms including sulfur can have more than eight elections on the out most layer when bouds with atoms. This is because sulfur atom can utilize d orbital to form bonds. The question is, should all d orbitals be used up when bonded electrons are more than eight or just depends on specific situation? Can someone explain reason to me? Thanks.
In molecules like in which sulfur exceeds its octet, the remaining electrons would go into the d orbitals, which should be filled in the same way the s and p orbitals are filled using the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule.
You would use up the d orbital of the highest energy level. For example in Sulfur, since you already have electrons in the 3s and 3p orbitals, you can also fill the 3d orbital with electrons... Recall how in the last chapter we looked at quantum numbers and if n=3, l = 0,1,2; thus any atom with n=3 at the primary quantum number has the ability to utilize the d orbital.
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