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"Ionic bonds form due to the transfer of an electron from one atom to another. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms. Metallic bonds are formed by the attraction between metal ions and delocalized, or "free" electrons."
Ionic bonds are generally made up of elements that have very different electronegativities (Na and Cl), while covalent bonds are made up of elements with similar electronegativities (CH4). Metallic bonds are formed by attraction between metal ions and the sea of electrons.
nelquosey wrote:An ionic bond is the transfer of electrons from an non-metal to a metal, a covalent bond is when two non-metals share electrons and metallic bond is when a metal exists within a mass of electrons.
For ionic bonds, I understand there's a transfer of electrons, but how do we determine if the electrons transfer from the metal atom to the non-metal, or vice versa? Would we look at electronegativity, ionization energy, or electron affinity? Thanks in advance!
Generally, a covalent bond is between a nonmetal and a nonmetal (which is why they have to share electrons since both usually have high electronegativities and are unwilling to fully give up an electron), an ionic bond is between a metal and a nonmetal (the large difference in electronegativities allows electrons to be transferred from the metal, which has a low EN and will give up an electron easily, to the nonmetal, which has a high EN and will attract the electron from the metal), and a metallic bond is between two metals.
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