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The purpose of formal charge is to find the lowest energy state possible for the molecule. Formal charge predicts what arrangment of atoms a molecule is most likely to be found in and create s a lewis structure with the lowest energy (0)
According to the book formal charge is the electric charge of an atom in a molecule assigned on the assumption that the bonding is nonpolar covalent. Formal Charge (FC)= number off valence electrons in the free atom-(number of lone pair electrons+1/2 x number of shared electrons). However, since the “number of bonding electrons divided by 2” term is also equal to the number of bonds surrounding the atom, here's the shortcut formula: Formal Charge = [# of valence electrons on atom] – [non-bonded electrons + number of bonds].
The equation for the formal charge is, formal charge = V - (L+1/2(B)) V= # of valence electron of the element, L= # of lone pairs surrounding the atom (count each electron), B= bonded pairs (count each electron)
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