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You determine whether an atom is delta positive or delta negative by comparing electronegativities. For example, if carbon and oxygen were bonded together, oxygen will have the delta negative sign assigned to it since it has a higher electronegativity than carbon. And carbon would be assigned the delta positive since it will lose electrons due to the electronegativity of oxygen.
A negative dipole should be on the side that is more electronegative, and takes in electrons. It will be able to pull other electrons to it and become more negative. Thus, the positive dipole is the one that is less electronegative, giving off electrons and becoming more positive.
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