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Removing the second electron

Posted: Wed Oct 31, 2018 7:44 pm
by Victoria Luu - 1C
Why is removing the second electron harder? Does it have to do with the pull from the nucleus on the electron?

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Wed Oct 31, 2018 7:52 pm
by Anushi Patel 1J
Once the first electron is removed, the atom becomes a positive ion. It has an overall positive charge, so removing another electron from it would be much harder than removing an electron from a neutral atom due to the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus and electrons.

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Thu Nov 01, 2018 11:23 am
by Charles Gu 1D
Since there are fewer electrons in the outer shell, each electron has a stronger attractive force. This causes it to be harder to remove.

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Thu Nov 01, 2018 12:00 pm
by Olivia Young 1A
Removing a second electron from an atom is much harder than removing the first electron because there is a higher electrostatic attraction. This is represented through ionization energies; the first ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron, and the second ionization energy is the energy needed to remove the second electron. Once that first electron is removed, the other electrons experience a higher attraction to the nucleus and less repulsive forces between electrons. Therefore, removing the second electron is much harder since the attraction to the nucleus is higher.

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Thu Nov 01, 2018 12:29 pm
by Anna O 2C
Removing the second electron generally requires more energy because of the proton's net positive charge. When the first electron is removed, the positive pull of the protons gains more power over the fewer electrons still left in orbital. Thus, more energy is then required from an outside source to remove the second electron.

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Thu Nov 01, 2018 12:46 pm
by Kevin ODonnell 2B
Here are some numbers to give some of the reasons above some more concrete evidence. For Al it takes 577.6 kJ/mol to remove the 1st electron, 1816.6 for the second, 2744.7 for the third, and 11,577 for the fourth. Looking at these numbers it makes sense why it is a lot easier to gain 4 electrons than lose all four in that case as well.

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Thu Nov 01, 2018 3:22 pm
by Hannah Pham 1D
Removing the second electron is a lot harder because of the net charge of the atom becomes more positive after removing the first electron, so removing the second electron requires more energy.

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Fri Nov 02, 2018 2:15 am
by Henry Dudley 1G
Anushi Patel 1L wrote:Once the first electron is removed, the atom becomes a positive ion. It has an overall positive charge, so removing another electron from it would be much harder than removing an electron from a neutral atom due to the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus and electrons.


Does this mean removing a third electron is even harder than removing the second?

Re: Removing the second electron

Posted: Fri Nov 02, 2018 12:06 pm
by Xinyi Zeng 4C
Henry Dudley 1I wrote:
Anushi Patel 1L wrote:Once the first electron is removed, the atom becomes a positive ion. It has an overall positive charge, so removing another electron from it would be much harder than removing an electron from a neutral atom due to the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus and electrons.


Does this mean removing a third electron is even harder than removing the second?



Yes, and removing the fourth is harder than removing the third and so on, as the cation will have an increasing charge, from +2 to +3 and to +4, which also denotes a more effective nuclear charge.