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There are a few different ways chemical bonds can form depending on the two atoms that are interacting. If one atom is a metal and the other is a nonmetal then bonding will usually happen when electrons are transferred from the atom with low electronegativity to the atom with higher electronegativity. This type of bonding is referred to as ionic. If both atoms are non metals (or semi metals) then bonding will typically happen when the two atoms share a pair of electrons between them. This is because both atoms have a high electronegativity and is known as covalent bonding.
Typically, when the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is greater than 2, an ionic bond forms. If the electronegativity difference is less than 1.5, it is a covalent bond. However, all ionic bonds have some covalent character.
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