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This is also because Helium is a noble gas. Since it also has very few orbitals and energy shells in the ground state, the electrons experience little to no shielding and thus require extreme amounts of energy to remove electrons.
There are occasionally exceptions to the trend rules for ionization energy, electronegativity, and atomic radii, but since the general trend for ionization energy is that it increases going up and to the right, and I don't know of any exceptions where an element would have a higher ionization energy than He, it's safe to assume that He, being the furthest to the right and up on the periodic table, has the highest ionization energy of all the elements.
604656370 wrote:How would you determine these trends for diagonal (non-adjacent) elements? For example, between Carbon and Sulfur.
I think between those two, carbon would have a higher ionization energy because sulfur is in period 3, which means it has another shell around the nucleus. The extra shell shields valence electrons from the nucleus, which generally makes it easier to take one away, which is what ionization energy is. Thus, it would take more energy to remove an electron from carbon (2 shells) rather than sulfur (3 shells).
That was a good point though, hopefully we never have to compare two elements that could be similar in ionization energies.
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